OFFSET formula – Explained

Posted on September 17th, 2012 in Learn Excel - 80 comments

Today, lets learn OFFSET formula.

What is OFFSET and why bother using it?

OFFSET formula gives us reference to a range, from a given starting point with given height and width in cells.

OFFSET formula syntax

OFFSET formula looks like this:

=OFFSET(starting point, rows to move, columns to move, height, width)

  • Starting point: This is a cell or range from which you want to offset
  • Rows & columns to move: How many rows & columns you want to move the starting point. Both of these can be positive, negative or zero. More on this below.
  • Height & width: This is the size of range you want to return. For ex. 4,3 would give you a range with 4 cells tall & 3 cells wide.

And yes, All the arguments to OFFSET can be references to other cells. That means, you can write =OFFSET(A1,D1,D2,D3,D4) which will refer to a range

  • Starting from A1
  • Offset by D1 rows & D2 columns
  • having the size of D3 rows & D4 columns

See below examples to understand the formula better.

OFFSET formula examples

Microsoft Excel OFFSET Formula Examples

Why use OFFSET?

Why not write a reference like A1:C4 directly?

Here are a few reasons why,

  1. Dynamic ranges: Reference like A1:C4 always refers to the range A1:C4. ie it is static. But sometimes, we want our ranges to be dynamic. This is required because our data is changing (every month new row is added, every time we launch a product new column is added etc.)
  2. We don’t know the exact address: Sometimes, we don’t know what our ranges actual address is. Rather, we just know it is starting from a certain cell etc. In such situations OFFSET is useful.

Understand OFFSET formula – Interactive Workbook

Since OFFSET formula is somewhat tricky to get, I created an interactive workbook so that you can understand how it works. When you input all the 5 parameters, the workbook highlights the range that your OFFSET will give. After playing with it for a few minutes, you will understand the formula better.

OFFSET Formula - Interactively explained - Click to download


Learn OFFSET formula - Download Interactive Workbook

Practical use for OFFSET – Average of latest week

Lets say we monitor quality of a plant producing purple puppets. One of the KPIs we monitor is % of rejected puppets. We have been tracking the % of rejects by day in a spreadsheet that looks like this:

Average of Latest Week - Practical use of OFFSET formula

So how do we calculate average of latest week?

Assuming the values are in range C3:C18, we can write =AVERAGE(C12:C18)


Even puppets would find that boring.

By using the OFFSET awesome sauce, we can write the AVERAGE formula once and forget about it.


Lets break-apart this formula and understand

  • To calculate latest week’s average, we need to go all the to the last data point and then get 7 rows from it and average those values.
  • This is where COUNTA(C3:C300) – 7 comes in to picture. It counts how many values are there in column C and then subtracts 7 from it.
  • The OFFSET would then starting point from C3 to latest week’s starting point.
  • To know how this formula works, watch below demo.

Average of latest week - OFFSET formula usage - demo

OFFSET limitations

While offset formula can return with a dynamic range when you beckon, it does have few limitations:

  • OFFSET formula is volatile: In plain English it means, whenever there is any change in your workbook, OFFSET formula is recalculated, thus keeping Excel busy a tiny bit longer. This is not an issue if you use OFFSET formula in a small workbook. But when you use lots of OFFSET formulas in large workbooks, you will end up cursing Excel as it takes too much time to recalculate.
  • OFFSET formulas are tricky to debug: Because the references are dynamic, debugging a workbook with lots of OFFSETs can get tricky quickly.

Alternatives to OFFSET formula

There 2 fine alternatives to OFFSET formula.

  • Use Excel Tables: Since Excel 2007, we can create tables from structured data and write formulas, create charts that refer to dynamic ranges with ease. Click here to know more about tables.
  • Use INDEX formula:  Although not exactly same as OFFSET, INDEX formula can also be used to generate dynamic range references. Plus, INDEX is a non-volatile formula, so it wont keep Excel busy unnecessarily. Know more about INDEX formula.

Do you use OFFSET formula?

For most of my dynamic range needs, I rely on tables or INDEX formula. I use OFFSET formula when I have to calculate values like average of latest week. In such cases OFFSET is an elegant solution.

What about you? Do you use OFFSET formula? In which situations do you use it? Please share your tips & examples with us using comments.

Know More about OFFSET

Check out below examples to understand OFFSET formula better:

Written by Chandoo
Tags: , , , , , , ,
Home: Main Page
? Doubt: Ask an Excel Question

80 Responses to “OFFSET formula – Explained”

  1. Jonas says:

    Just a small comment not relating to the OFFSET formula, but rather your example of calculating an average from percentages. Calculating an average from percentages can be very misleading or plainly wrong, since it is not weighted at all. If on day 1 you produced 100 puppets with 1% rejected (=1 rejected) and on day 2 produced only two puppets with 100% rejected, your average would show a rejected average of 50,5%. In reality, the correct percentage would be 3% rejected.

    • Chandoo says:

      Good point Jonas. I initially typed reject % per million, but modified it for sake of simplicity. Nevertheless, we should weigh our averages in cases like this.

      • Matt says:

        how do you weigh your averages? And can you do this formula somehow without it? That's exactly the problem i have right now in excel... 

        • Jason says:

          If you are given a column that includes the actual number of rejects, you can sum the total rejects, sum the total produced, and then create your percentage based on that.

          If you are not given a column that includes the actual number of rejects, but only the percentage, work backwards to resolve the number of rejects, and continue.

          In either case, if you were to look only at the above data given, you could not weight an average with the data given. At the least, you would need the total number produced each day, and either the number of rejects or percentage of rejects.

    • Mike says:

      I love LN for this - when you take a LN of a percent the numbers can be added / subtracted without issue and then use EXP to convert back to percents

      If you do use LN thank Euler

      for example LN(50%) = -.69 and LN(200%) = .69

      Add the LNs and you get 0% change - which is the correct value

      Much easier than percents

  2. Nunes d'Areeiro says:


    Can you tell me how do you make the conditional formatting in the interactive workbook? 🙂

    I can't seem to figure out a way to, in a formula without VBA, check if a cell is within a range...

    Thank you! 

    • Chandoo says:

      In this example, I made one range rngOffset that refers to the offset range. Then to check any cell overlaps with this, I used

      =ISERROR(ROWS(rngOffset A1))

      this will be TRUE for non-overlap and FALSE for overlap.

      The key is to use SPACE as intersection operator 🙂

      • Nunes d'Areeiro says:


        I didn't knew that using the SPACE between ranges worked as an intersection operator...

        You have just literally changed my life, Chandoo... 🙂 

        I've just checked that with other formulas SUM, AVERAGE, etc... with intersections between ranges. It works!! IT WORKS!!!! LOL 😀

        You cannot imagine how usefull that will be in my work (and I'm a heavy Excel user). 

        Thank you very very much, you are trully a gift from the Excel Gods... 

        • George says:

          Wow, I had no idea you could do that.  Is there any chance you can do an instructional thing on the weird and wonderful features like this that are pretty obscure but insanely useful? 

          • Nunes d'Areeiro says:

            I spent a few minutes experimenting with this. You can also do it with more than 2 ranges... something like =SUM(rng1 rng2 rng3) will return the sum of the intersection between the 3 ranges given...

          • Chandoo says:

            Yes, why not. Let me write a short tutorial about this later this week.

        • George says:

          Having played a bit more (and bringing it back to the topic), you can use this with offset, so I'm betting there's a way to do a multiple condition lookup using this rather than sumproduct and boolean operators. 

      • Sawan says:

        The conditional formatting is very cool!

  3. Chan says:

    I think there is a mistake in the colored box diagram. The Blue and green box should be switched. Height and width are switched

  4. Jeff F. says:

    I've found using OFFSET with INDIRECT and ADDRESS is extremely useful.  In a nutshell, it allows you to have a drop down where the user can select a worksheet name so that the initial OFFSET reference is directed to a specific worksheet essentially making it dynamic.  I'm more space/time is needed to further explain how it works.  It's definitely worth looking into.

  5. Ahmed Ali Latif says:


    I wanted to share my experience using the OFFSET command which i found very helpful. I had made a repayment schedule using PMT function for 20 years on monthly basis. Then i had to check for the total cash outflow, principle and interest separate, semi annually (6 monthly). First i thought i'd manually add the 6 month for 20 years but that was illogical and too time consuming. So i played around with SUM and OFFSET   function and after a while it worked.

    I used the following function;

    Where D41 was the first month payment and AA7 was the reference of a cell where i had punched number in multiples of 6 ( 6,12,18,24) so it worked perfectly     
    I would like to thank Chandoo and everyone for this website, i have learned alot and it has made my life easier. My office colleagues respect me for my skills in excel and i couldnt have ever done it without Chandoo and this website. Thankyou

  6. rajranja says:

    OMG!!! SPACE instead of Operator?? never thot about it.. Thanks a ton Chandoo and hui...

  7. rajranja says:

    @Chandoo / Hui : = Can you give me some links to know something more about Array Formulas...

  8. Ashish Singh says:

    I use OFFSET fx with a scroll bar set with a small range that shows all records on a small static range kept in a large list somewhere else
    P.S. I guess the worksheet protection password in the fifth attempt 🙂

  9. Juanito says:

    Mystery here... do I need to reinstall?

    If I use OFFSET with >1 in the height or width arguments, I get a VALUE error.

    Nevertheless, in Chandoo's demo workbook (I wasn't clever enough to guess the password...) I can input any value and it works fine.


    - Juanito

  10. Chris says:

    I have been using a combination of OFFSET and MATCH for a few years now when I want to look up a value from a list based on a specific entry.  This seems to be a common use of them both, but have found it very useful.  IN a very similar manner, I've also started using INDEX and MATCH rather than OFFSET due to the volatility of OFFSET.  While the syntax is slightly different between the two, I've not yet found any noticeable differences in how the combination works.  The advantage with INDEX (as already noted) is that it will not unnecessarily task your workbook.  Also, I find this solution far superior to any of the LOOKUP formulas since INDEX/MATCH and/or OFFSET/MATCH doesn't have the limitations of LOOKUPs.

  11. Fred says:

    Hey Chandoo,

    I cracked your password protection on 2nd attempt.  that's not good!  🙂


  12. Terry Lavelle says:

    I used offset in VBA to insert a sum formula. The macro had to figure out a range to sum and put in a formula. I used =sum(offset(...)) and inserted variables determined by VBA for the arguments in the offset function.
    I would be happy to know another way to do this, but it worked and did the job intended. Now the worksheet has formulas all over it.
    Hope this may be of use.

  13. Pavel Lasák says:

    I have wrote article about OFFSET (POSUN) in Czech language, Your interactive Table ist beter. Good job.

  14. Dante S. Valenzuela says:

    I use OFFSET to create a dynamic dropdown list. It works as dropdown in cells in any sheet within the workbook and in combobox, listbox.

    1) Enter any value in Sheet1 under column A then create the dynamic range
    Insert > Name > Define: Date > Refers to:
    = OFFSET(Sheet1!$A$2,0,0,COUNTA(Sheet1!$A:$A)-1,1)

    2) Use as dropdown in any cell in any sheet. For example: Select cell A2:A10 in sheet2. Select menu Data > Validation > Allow: List, Source: =Date

    3) Use as dropdown in a combobox in any sheet: View > Toolbars > Forms > Combobox > Right Click > Format Control > Input  Range: Date

    Try adding some more value in Sheet1 column A. See the dropdown changing also.


  15. Carlos Correia says:

    I want the reference of the offset formula to be formula, in other words
    offset (x,0,1). i want the x to be a formula so that it starts offseting from a result. Possible?

    • Hui... says:

      Yes that's possible
      A few functions return an Address as a result including Address(), Index() and Offset()

      • Carlos Correia says:

        Not sure how it works, it there a way i can send you an example?

      • Werner Peens says:

        Can you also use VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP to return a value from where to start OFFSET?  I want to COUNTIF various values in a column based on the date entered on a different sheet.  Excel doesn't seem to appreciate my VLOOKUP statement!

        • Hui... says:

          You sure can use the Lookup functions with Offset
          Can you post a sample of your data and what your trying to achieve?

          • Werner Peens says:

            Thanks Hui, unfortunately I cant post the data, will try to explain in more detail.  We have several sheets in same workbook for staff, labour and contractors.  Each sheet contains a list of all personal and their details, as well as a roster for when they are onsite and offsite and how many hours worked.  Top of colums have date and names, details and hours worked per row.
            On a separate sheet I want to calculate how many labour per trade was onsite at any given day.  Therefore I want to enter a date in a cell, the date should be looked up on the labour sheet, then COUNTIF the column of the valid date to display how many Riggers for instance, was onsite on that given date.
            I am trying the following:
            Where HLOOKUP should return the cell value of the matching date as the reference for the OFFET and then COUNTIF Riggers in the specified OFFSET range.  I was trying it this way as I want to be able to enter different dates to get the figures for whatever day I need.
            Hope I was clear enough.  If not, I will create a dummy sheet and upload it.

  16. [...] Welcome to the message board! I believe the OFFSET-function is what you're looking for. Here's a good introduction to the OFFSET-formula: OFFSET formula – Explained | - Learn Microsoft Excel Online [...]

  17. Jerald Tucker says:

    Hello Chandoo,

    I took your Excel dashboard class a couple of years ago. I appreciate you posting so much helpful information on a variety of Excel topics. Great job!

  18. darth2wicked says:

    Awesome way to breakdown the utility of OFFSET I had read so many other blogs and help sites before this one. Not one of them had been as clear as you have posted on this site. Looking forward to learning as much as possible from you.

  19. Alex Cast says:

    What role would the PMT function and the VLOOKUP function play in what-if analysis?

  20. Robert W. Hayden says:

    I set up dynamic ranges in Excel 2000 and they work for some things but not most. For example, if "Numbers" is a dynamic range, "=MAX(Numbers)" returns 0 regardless of what is in Numbers.

  21. Jonathan says:

    Hi Everybody,

    Just a quick question...
    Can I use the offset function or index function to cretae a dynamic averge for a particular month of the year. I.e excel looking up
    numbers in colum B against March 2014 dates in coulm A to create a March 2014 average? Thanks!

    27/01/2014 108.7
    28/01/2014 108.9
    29/01/2014 109.3
    30/01/2014 109.8
    31/01/2014 108.4
    3/02/2014 106.8
    4/02/2014 107.1
    5/02/2014 106.9
    6/02/2014 108.1
    7/02/2014 109.3
    10/02/2014 110.3
    11/02/2014 109.3
    12/02/2014 108.7
    13/02/2014 109.0
    14/02/2014 108.7
    17/02/2014 109.2
    18/02/2014 109.8
    19/02/2014 110.3
    20/02/2014 109.6

    • Chandoo says:

      @Jonathan... A better option is to use AVERAGEIFS() function. It is built for situations like this.

      Use =AVERAGEIFS(columnB, column A, ">=01-MAR-2014",column A, "<01-APR-2014")

  22. Jonathan says:

    Thanks Chandoo. I really appreciate your website. Keep up the great work. Jonathan

  23. Reggie N says:

    The zipped file doesn't contain the spreadsheet.

  24. Delta337 says:

    Hi Chandoo,

    I have a beast of an offset equation comprising of a heap of countifs scenarios. This beast compares roster patterns and absenteeism days for the afore mentioned scenarios and totals them over the previous 12 month period. The equation itself is not an issue and works fine. The issue I am having trouble with is slaving the calculation to the current month effectively sliding the calculations along so at the beginning of each new month this year, the offset equations recalculate from 01 this month last year and stop calculating at the last day of the current month - this year.

    I have on the same spreadsheet another equation that works splendidly for counting the number of absentee types for the previous 12 months. I tried wrapping the beast inside if that, but to no avail.


    At the moment I have to manually adjust the calculation on the 01st of each month. Am I doomed to have to do this manually every month?

    Below is the beast. I can post a dummy worksheet if you desire.

    Thank you for your consideration if this issue.


  25. Chris says:

    Hi Chandoo

    I'm experiencing some real OFFSET weirdness in my spreadsheet. I'm trying to setup a dynamic range for the X axis of a chart by setting the (X) series to be a defined named range which contains the OFFSET formula.

    So let's say the X axis runs from 100 - 1000 in 100 increments as a maximum. Via a separate drop down data validation list the user can select let's say '500' so we only want the X axis to be between 100 - 500

    I'm using the following OFFSET formula to define the named range:


    Broken down:

    =OFFSET(A4, = cell to the left of the '100' cell
    0, = stay on row 4
    1, = offset 1 column to the right (B4)
    1, = Return 'height' as same row (4)
    MATCH(B2,B4:K4,0)) = Return 'Width' as numbe rof cols between '100' - 'user defined choice in cell B2'

    so for a user choice of '500' we should actually get a range returned for the chart of B4:F4

    The issue is this seems to work for some and not all which doesn't make any sense...for each user defined choice I see the following:

    100 = works correctly
    200 = works correctly
    300+ = stays at 100-200 (B4:C4) range

    I've uploaded an example of the issue here in a test sheet:

    Appreciate any assistance folks!

    • Hui... says:

      This is strange indeed

      Typically you only use the Width modifier in Offset to extract a range of data for say charting
      In your case I am even confused as to why offset is returning 200 when you use 200 as it should return 100
      (we will see why below)

      If you want the value of the cell at the 600 position the format of a offset should be
      =Offset(A4, 0, MATCH(B2,B4:K4,0))
      There is no need for the width or height modifier as they default to 1 anyway

      If you want the array of cells starting from B4 and extending accross to the 600 position
      the format of a offset should be
      =Offset(A4, 0, 1, 1, MATCH(B2,B4:K4,0)) 'Your formula
      But this will return an array of numbers
      Enter 600 in B2
      then in C2 press F2 then F9
      Excel displays ={100,200,300,400,500,600}
      as it should

      So I am confused as to why it shows 200, where it should display 100, the top left corner of the array

      If you now copy the formula in C2 and paste it in B6, C6 and D6 you will see that Excel displays the values
      100, 200 and 300 respectively
      So the Value returned from the offset is its relation to the column of the array B4:K4

      I would setup the Formula as a Named Formula in the Name Manager
      Then add the Name to the chart instead of doing it on the worksheet

      • Chris says:

        Hey Hui, thanks for the input!

        Thought I had an epiphany with this last night - how about I simplify the OFFSET formula by giving it the required range in the first place rather than working that out within....

        So I put this together to return the required range as text (in cell F2):


        (horrible I know 🙂 )

        Then simplified the OFFSET thus:


        Guess what?..... At '300' I still see '200' and pressinf F2 and F9 gives me the ={100,200,300} range correctly.

        It's very odd! I'll see how the named formula goes although I think that's what I've been doing. I've only been trying to get it working on the sheet then copying and pasting the formula into a named range. The problem I've had there is that when referencing it in the X or Y series entry it complains there's a problem with the formula.

        Oh well.....will have another bash before the laptop goes out the window 🙂

        • Hui... says:

          Don't be afraid to send me the file and I can assist more specifically
          Click on Hui above, email at bottom of page

          • Chris says:

            Hi Hui

            WE HAVE SUCCESS!

            There were two issues:

            The OFFSET function still looks weird but the F2 and F9 tip is a gem, I'm only interested in what the function is returning as raw data, not necessarily what it is showing me on the screen, so yes, it's working correctly.

            The second problem has been with then copying that OFFSET function into a named range. I've found out that if you don't set the cell references to be explicit using the $ sign, the named range will change by itself depending on where your active cell is in the worksheet (sounds like a bug to me!). So the minute you click off the cell with the OFFSET function in and for example select a new value from the drop down...your chart range has just been nuked!

            Setting the references to be explicit does the job and I now have a chart dynamically updating both X and Y axis depending on a user controlled list.

            Many thanks for your help, hopefully this may help others!

          • Hui... says:

            The behavior of Named Formula is relative to the position that the cursor is on at the time you enter the formula
            It is a feature not a bug, but traps a lot of people
            Yes, Using Absolute references locks it in position

            The use of named Formula to setup input data for charts is extremely powerful and much more efficient that doing the same on a worksheet

            If you have a look at my post at:
            It is a simple scatter chart with about 23 series and is based on Named Formula

  26. Ranveer Singh says:

    Wow! Awesome Information about offset!

  27. maria says:

    Hi Chandoo!

    I'd like you to know that some Russian websites post your materials (translated, of course) as if they created these materials themselves. Without any reference to your blog.

    This guy copied this OFFSET tutorial word-by-word:

    So did this guy:

    You may not understand Russian, but you can see that pictures and structure are the same. And you may trust me, text - is just a translation. Whan you say "I did" they say "I did".

  28. philippe says:

    Thank you all for your comments. I've learnt a lot!

    Can anybody explain me this formula:


    It's helping me but I would like to understand it well.


    • Hui... says:


      The formula: =OFFSET(‘list’!$AI$3,COLUMNS($AI$3:AI3)-1,ROWS($AI$3:AI3)-1)
      Sets up a Range which is on Worksheet List
      It starts with a reference cell: AI3 (Top Left corner of the range)
      It is then offset by COLUMNS($AI$3:AI3)-1 Number of rows Below AI3 and
      it is offset ROWS($AI$3:AI3)-1 Columns to the Right of AI3

      Initially this will be AI3 as the Columns and Rows will both return 1 and subtracting 1 leaves 0
      But as you copy the Formula Dow It will move the new reference to the right and as you copy the formula to the right it will; shift the reference cell down

      What that means in plane English is that it is mirroring the Rows and Columns from the original data so that the rows are now the columns and the columns are now the rows.

      Source Data:
      1 2 3
      11 12 13
      21 22 23

      Destination Data:
      1 11 21
      2 12 22
      3 13 23

  29. […] You can find Chandoo’s article on OFFSET here. […]

  30. kimkirk says:


    For some reason I keep getting a #VALUE error, even when I use your exact example of "=OFFSET(A1,0,0,4,3)" (the green block). What am I doing wrong?

    Very confused :/


  31. pankaj says:

    good work team.....god bless u all

  32. Raj says:

    Hi there i want to automate my excel chart ,i have a problem in offset function .Can you please provide me your email so that i can explain whole problem with data.

  33. […] How to use the Offset formula [Chandoo] […]

  34. […] How to use the Offset formula [Chandoo] […]

  35. Ritesh Jain says:

    Thank you much with illustration, it's very helpful to make a dynamic range and get exact data, what is required .

Leave a Reply